Archive for the ‘master of the month’ Category
Rembrandt van Rijn was a Dutch painter and printmaker. He was one of the greatest painters in European history. His most famous works include a group portrait called The Night Watch and his numerous self-portraits. Because he painted himself as honestly as possible, his self-portraits as a whole create a unique and intimate autobiography.
Rembrandt van Rijn was born in 1606 in what is now the Netherlands. Even in school, he was interested in painting. He was an apprentice to two successful painters before he started his own workshop where he taught students of his own. Rembrandt’s first important work was painted for the court of The Hague. The prince noticed his painting and began to commission portraits from Rembrandt. The artist used this success to move his business to the growing city of Amsterdam where he had great success as a portrait painter. Important people used to visit his studio to see how the great artist worked and to purchase pieces for their own collections.
Rembrandt met his wife, Saskia, in Amsterdam. They married and made a home in Broadway, the Jewish quarter. He often asked his Jewish neighbors to model for him when he painted scenes from the Bible. Rembrandt also placed himself, his friends, and his family into these historic paintings. Some historians think of these cameos as “a kind of diary, an account of moments in his own life.” Some important qualities of Rembrandt’s paintings are his use of high contrast light and shadow called chiaroscuro, the informality of his subjects, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind regardless of wealth and age.
Rembrandt and his wife suffered several personal tragedies including the deaths of three children. Only their fourth child, Titus, survived to adulthood. Saskia herself died soon after her son’s birth. Rembrandt’s drawings of his wife on her death bed are among his most moving work.
Rembrandt made an excellent living as a painter, but he didn’t manage his money well. He lived beyond his means, bought expensive art, prints, and rarities. To pay his debts, he was forced to sell these treasures and his own paintings. A list of those sales gave historians an idea of how Rembrandt lived. His collections include master drawings, busts from the Roman Empire, and suits of Japanese armor. After the sale, Rembrandt moved to a more modest home and started an art dealership with his son.
Rembrandt died in 1669.
In his lifetime, Rembrandt created more than seventy self-portraits. Some show the artist posing in historical costumes or making faces at himself. His oil paintings trace his maturation from an uncertain young man, to a very successful portrait painter, to his troubled but powerful old age. As a whole, the self-portraits give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychology, as revealed by his richly aged face. In a letter, Rembrandt explained what he hoped to achieve through his art, “The greatest and most natural emotion.”
Rembrandt’s work can be seen today in museums in America, England, France, Germany, Russia, Sweden, and, of course, the Netherlands. The most important collection is in Amsterdam’s Rijksmuseum. His home in Amsterdam was also preserved as the Rembrandt House Museum.
OMG, the SELFIES, you guys! When “selfie” was declared the 2013 word of the year, I read several so-so jokes about Rembrandt’s being the original. Whatevs, I didn’t appreciate that at first. After even the slightest scrutiny though, I see what the jokesters were saying. If you take a second to see past the change in fashion, you will recognize Rembrandt as a contemporary. His painting are so fresh. His drawings are so clear. His observations of himself are so beautifully honest. You can see the man. You can feel who he is. Despite the hundreds of years that separate us. That is mastery.
Portrait of Rembrandt at top drawn by yours truly, Rama Hughes. Etching and oil painting by the master himself.
Marc Chagall was named “the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century.” As a pioneer of Modernism, he was always experimenting with new ideas and new methods of expression. Some of his most famous works include The Birthday, I and the Village, and Over the Town.
He was born in 1887 to a poor Jewish family in Russia. He was the eldest of nine children. Chagall began to display his artistic talent while studying at a secular Russian school. He began studying art seriously with Leon Bakst in St. Petersburg in 1907. It was at this time that his distinct style began to emerge. His paintings were about his childhood, a focus that would interest him for the rest of his life.
In 1910, Chagall, moved to Paris. There he painted some of his most famous paintings. He used strong and bright colors to portray the Jewish village in a dreamlike state. Fantasy, nostalgia, and religion came together in Chagall’s otherworldly images.
Chagall visited Russia in 1914 and couldn’t go home because of the outbreak of World War I. He made a home in Vitebsk, Russia. He founded an art school there and, in 1918, he was appointed Commissar for Art. In 1920, Chagall moved to Moscow and designed stage sets for the State Jewish Chamber Theater.
In 1931, Chagall travelled to Israel with his wife, Bella, and his daughter, Ida. While there, Chagall began a series of illustrations to the Bible. He travelled, painted, and drew in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Safed. The country left a vivid impression on him. When he returned to Paris, the light and landscape of Israel were echoed in his work.
During World War II Chagall fled to the United States. Through art, he expressed his horror over the Nazi rise to power. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, gave him a retrospective in 1946.
Chagall settled permanently in France in 1948 but he continued to travel and exhibit his artwork around the world. In 1951 he returned to Israel and made his first sculptures. Then he travelled to Greece and Italy. During the 1960s, he created stained-glass windows for the synagogue of the Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem; He painted a ceiling for the Paris Opéra; He designed a window for the United Nations building in New York; He painted murals for the Metropolitan Opera House in New York; and created windows for the cathedral in Metz, France. The Louvre in Paris exhibited his work in 1967–77 and the Philadelphia Museum of Art held a major retrospective of his art in 1985.
Chagall died on March 28, 1985, in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France.
My personal favorite of Chagall’s work is Der Spaziergang. On the simplest level, I just love the image. As a teacher though, I use it and Over the Town as examples for a very fun first grade painting project in which I introduce the students to landscapes and figure drawing.
This year, I also used Chagall as our example for Modernism. Our lessons focused on Modernism as a rejection of tradition and an exploration of new ideas. In this regard, Marc Chagall is a wonderfully inspirational and liberating artist to study. His use of color, fantasy, memory, depth, design, and a variety of media can serve as launch points for innumerable lessons.
Portrait of Marc Chagall drawn by yours truly, Rama Hughes
Maira Kalman is an American author, illustrator, designer, and book artist. She has written and made pictures for numerous books including Ooh-La-La Max in Love (for children) and The Principles of Uncertainty (for grown-ups).
Maira was born in Tel Aviv, Israel in 1949. She moved to New York City with her family when she was 4 years old. She attended the High School of Music and Art, made famous by the movie, Fame. She wanted to write short stories. So, she studied English in college at New York University.
Mrs. Kalman helped her husband, Tibor, found a graphic design company in 1979. Their studio, M&Co. was very successful. Some of their pieces can even be seen at the Museum of Modern Art. Tibor was the star and Maira was the “in house muse.” They designed album covers, magazines, film titles, clocks, umbrellas, and more. They accomplished all this while raising their two children, Lulu Bodoni and Alexander Onomatopeia.
Ms. Kalman also worked as an illustrator. In 1987, she illustrated a children’s book for David Byrne. He’s the lead singer of a band, the Talking Heads. Their book, Stay Up Late, launched her career as a book artist. A year later, she published her own book, Hey Willy, See the Pyramids. The book played with words and pictures. Kids and parents liked it so much that it started a new kind of children’s book: The expressive picture book.
A big hero of Maira Kalman’s early books was a dog poet named Max Stravinksy. Her books about Max won lots of awards. Kalman also wrote and illustrated Chicken Soup, Boots (about finding the perfect job); Next Stop Grand Central (based on murals she created for New York’s Grand Central Station); What Pete Ate From A-Z (a story about her own dog, Pete) and Fireboat (about an old fireboat that helped stop the fires in New York on Sept. 11, 2001). Each book celebrates Kalman’s love for New York City. They also tell a little bit of her own autobiography.
Before her husband died in 1999, Maira curated ‘Tiborocity’, a museum exhibition about his life’s work. She drew a beautiful story for New York Magazine about Tibor’s last days. She continued many of the projects that they began together like (un)Fashion, a book about world-wide fashion, and Colors, a magazine that Mr. Kalman founded.
Maira Kalman lives and works today in Manhattan in New York City. Her paintings are sold in galleries. She writes and draws for The New Yorker and The New York Times. She speaks on public radio. She paints murals. She designs handbags. She paints sets for dances and operas. She teaches at the School of Visual Arts. She is on the board of the American Institute of Graphic Arts. Kalman illustrated The Elements of Style, a textbook for writers. Her illustrated blogs, The Principles of Uncertainty and The Pursuit of Happiness, were published as books. In 2010 and 2011, her work was collected for exhibitions at the Jewish Museum in New York, The Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco and the Skirball Center here in Los Angeles. You can find her online at MairaKalman.com.
Maira Kalman has been a favorite artist of my family for as long as I can remember. Her Max Deluxe was a coffee table book in my high school home and her first New Yorker covers hung framed in our kitchen. My favorite is this one (above) that I also took with me to my first apartment. Beyond being one of my favorite artists though, Ms. Kalman serves as a wonderful example in my classroom. Her work is accessible, diverse, experimental, and cross-curricular. Consider, for example, how her recent books, Looking at Lincoln and The Pursuit of Happiness, make history personal. Not to mention how her illustrations for The Elements of Style make grammar warm and beautiful. I’ll be using Maira Kalman this year to inspire the kindergartener’s coloring book, the third graders’ still-life drawings, the fifth graders’ illustration project, and the seventh graders’ political cartoons.
Portrait of Maira Kalman drawn by yours truly, Rama Hughes
Hayao was born in Tokyo. He wanted to be a mangaka, or comic book artist. In high school, Hayao “fell in love” with the heroine of The Tale of the White Serpent. The animated film inspired him to study animation. In college, he joined the Children’s Literature Research Club. It was the “closest thing to a comics club in those days.”
Upon graduation, he got a job as an in-between artist at Toei Animation. He was first noticed for his work on Gulliver’s Travels Beyond the Moon. He didn’t like the ending. So, he pitched his own idea which was accepted and featured in the finished film. Over the next few years, Miyazaki played an important role in the creation of numerous Toei films like Hols: Prince of the Sun, Puss in Boots, Flying Phantom Ship, Animal Treasure Island, and Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.
In the 1970s, Miyazaki worked on television shows for several animation studios. He collaborated with his mentor, Isao Takahata, to create a cartoon about Pippi Longstocking, the famous Swedish children’s book heroine. When Pippi’s creator refused the idea, Hayao adapted it to create Panda! Go, Panda! A cartoon about a red-headed girl adopted by a panda bear. He went on to direct Future Boy Conan, an adaptation of another favorite children’s book. His directorial debut was The Castle of Cagliostro, a sequel. His first original film was Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind, based on his own manga or comic book series. These early cartoons established some of Miyazaki’s most enduring themes: pacifism, feminism, environmentalism, morally ambiguous characters, and a fascination with flight.
The success of these early projects allowed Miyazaki to organize his own animation company, Studio Ghibli. Miyazaki named the studio with the Italian word for wind. His purpose was to “Blow a new wind through the anime industry.” Their first film was Castle in the Sky about two orphans in search of a magical castle. My Neighbor Totoro is about two girls who discover forest spirits in their backyard. The largest Totoro became the symbol for Studio Ghibli. Kiki’s Delivery Service told the story of a young girl who goes to the big city to become a witch.
Princess Mononoke was the studio’s breakout success. Its conflict between animal spirits and industrial humans allowed Miyazaki to explore ecological themes within an exciting fantasy world. The movie won Japan’s award for Best Picture. But Miyazaki had drawn 80,000 of the cartoon’s frames himself. He was exhausted by the process, and announced that Princess Mononoke would be his final film.
During this semi-retirement, Miyazaki spent time with some friends and their daughters. One of these girls inspired his next movie. Spirited Away is about a young girl who must rescue her parents from a bizarre spirit world. The film elaborates of Miyazaki’s philosophy of good and evil. “In Spirited Away,” Miyazaki said, “The heroine is thrown into a place where the good and bad dwell together. She manages not because she has destroyed the ‘evil’, but because she has acquired the ability to survive.” The movie was Miyazaki’s greatest success. It won the Japanese Academy Prize, a Golden Bear from the Berlin Flim Festival, and an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. It is still considered one of the best films of the 2000s.
Miyazaki came out of retirement to help his studio complete Howl’s Moving Castle. His son, Goro, directed Tales from Earthsea based on some of Hayao’s favorite novels. During a vacation by the sea, Miyazaki kept sketchbooks and was inspired to direct another movie. Ponyo was a modern day adaptation of the Hans Christian Anderson fairy tale, The Little Mermaid. Miyazaki used no computer animation for the film at all. “It will be the director’s challenge to express the sea and its waves with freehand drawing.” Miyazaki co-wrote Studio Ghibli’s next films, The Secret World of Arrietty (based on Mary Norton’s novel, The Borrowers) and From up on Poppy Hill.
In 2013, Miyazaki completed his final film. The Wind Rises, and announced his retirement from animation. He told reporters that he is “quite serious” this time. He explained that an animator’s life as “quite strenuous” and he believes he is getting too old for the business. He is contributing to his son’s next film, but he plans to pursue new goals like working on the Studio Ghibli Museum. During a recent interview, he explained the purpose of his work: “I wanted to convey the message to children that this life is worth living.”
My students lit up when I presented Miyazaki as our master of the month. Few of them knew who he was but almost all of them knew and loved his movies. He is, of course, a perfect example for my sixth graders’ animation lessons. I was excited to share his watercolor studies for my students who are watercoloring. But my favorite Miyazaki lessons are his philosophies and encouragement. Besides his words on his retirement (that life is worth living), his movies are full of inspiration. Whispers of the Heart is practically a manifesto for young artists. A grandfatherly figure encourages a young writer by comparing her to an unpolished stone. “When you first become an artist,” He says, “You are like that rock. You are in a raw, natural state, with hidden gems inside. You have to dig down deep and find the emeralds tucked away inside you. And that’s just the beginning. Once you’ve found your gems, you have to polish them. It takes a lot of hard work.” When she finally delivers her first novel to him, he commends her and criticizes her. Understandably, she melts down in tears. It is such a genuine portrayal of the artistic process and of human emotion. (The movie itself is one of Miyazaki’s rough gems, but worth a viewing to see how he honed his own craft.)
Spirted Away was my first favorite Miyazaki movie. I vividly remember the afternoon that I first saw it. For those two hours I was transported into that world, and it is the only film that I have ever described as breathtaking. As extraordinary as the spirit world was though, I was most impressed by the ordinary moments that the movie noticed and took the time to animate. How Chihiro taps her toe when she puts her sneakers on. How she loses her balance on the stairs. Most of Miyazaki’s movies take the time to show us these things. Because of that, they do more than entertain me. They help me see my own life more clearly and with more curiosity.
Leonardo da Vinci is one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most talented person ever to have lived. His excellence in many different arts and sciences exemplified him as the definitive Renaissance Man. His most famous painting is La Gioconda, a portrait better known as the Mona Lisa.
Leonardo was born Italy in 1452 during an artistic and scientific revival called the Renaissance. Little is known about his childhood but he kept journals and he did write down some of his memories. When he was fourteen, Leonardo became an apprentice to one of the most famous artists of his day, Verrocchio. Leonardo received a wonderful education there. When he was twenty, Leonardo qualified as a master in the guild of artists and doctors of medicine. Leonardo became famous as a painter, a scientist, and an engineer.
In search of new challenges and big bucks, Leonardo entered the service of the Duke of Milan. The Duke kept Leonardo busy painting and sculpting and designing elaborate court festivals, but he also put Leonardo to work creating weapons, buildings and machinery. Alas, Leonardo’s interests were so broad that he rarely finished what he started. He left dozens of paintings and projects unfinished.
Nonetheless, Leonardo’s paintings became famous for the inventive techniques that he used to apply paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology, his interest in the way in which humans show emotion with their faces and their gestures, and the way that he arranged the people and objects in his art work. All these qualities come together in his most famous paintings.
Leonardo’s studies in science are as impressive and innovative as his artistic work. Leonardo actually anticipated many discoveries of modern times. In anatomy, he studied the circulation of the blood and the action of the eye. He made discoveries in meteorology and geology, learned the effect of the moon on the tides, foreshadowed modern conceptions of continent formation, and guessed the nature of fossil shells. He was one of the originators of the science of hydraulics, the study of water in motion; his design for the canals are still used today. He invented a large number of ingenious machines, many potentially useful, among them an underwater diving suit. His flying devices, although not practical, embodied sound principles of aerodynamics.
His approach to science was observational: he tried to understand things by describing them in the utmost detail. Leonardo closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the human body. As a successful artist, he was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome. He drew many studies of the human skeleton and its parts, as well as muscles and sinews, the heart and vascular system, and other internal organs.
Leonardo also worked as an engineer. His journals include a vast number of inventions, both practical and impractical. They include musical instruments, hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, finned mortar shells, a steam cannon, a submarine, and shoes for walking on water! He even devised working bridges and hang gliders.
After an invasion by the French, Leonardo traveled throughout Italy for a number of employers. He worked as a military engineer. He also designed a bridge to span the “golden horn” in Constantinople and he re- ceived a job painting the “Battle of Anghiari.” He wound up working in Rome but, when his patron, Giuliano de’ Medici, passed away; King Francis I of France invited Leonardo to become Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect of the King. Leonardo passed away in the king’s arms in 1519.
The last time Leonardo was our master of the month, my students did a pretty amazing job drawing their own versions of the Mona Lisa. This year, I’m using the master to launch a year of design, invention, and innovation projects. What I like most about da Vinci though are his studies of water. I haven’t seen a LOT of them, but I love the idea of one of the greatest artists of history watching the motion of water for that long.
Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci by yours truly, Rama Hughes.
Stefan Sagmeister is an Austrian graphic designer who lives and works in New York. He is best know for his work with AIGA and musicians like David Byrne and Lou Reed.
Stefan was born in Bregenz, Austria. His parents own a retail fashion business. He went to an engineering school before an illustration project inspired him to study graphic design. He hoped to attend the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, but “just about everybody was better at drawing than I was.” So, he enrolled in a private art school and was accepted to the University on his second try. While there, he created posters for a local theatre and for a campaign to save a music hall from demolition. He graduated with a first class degree and a prize from the City of Vienna.
Sagmeister earned a Fulbright scholarship to study design at the Pratt Institute in New York. Humor emerged as a powerful strength in his work. When a friend from Austria came to visit, Sagmeister postered the neighbourhood with a picture of his friend under the words “Dear Girls! Please be nice to Reini.”
Sagmeister returned to Austria for its compulsory military service. As a conscientious objector, he was allowed to work in a refugee center. Upon completion of his service, he moved to Hong Kong to work for the Leo Burnett ad agency. Then back to New York to work for Tibor Kalman at M&Co. It was Stefan’s dream to work for Tibor. He called and wrote the designer persistently until Tibor sponsored his green card application. When M&Co. closed a few months later, Stefan used a pair of nude self-portraits to announce the launch of his own studio, Sagmeister Inc.
To pursue work that he enjoyed, Sagmeister followed Kalman’s advice and kept his firm very small: just himself, a designer, and an intern. His first clients were himself, his brother, and a girlfriend for whom he created one dollar business cards on one dollar bills. He earned his first Grammy nomination designing a CD cover for his friend’s album, Mountains of Madness. He was soon hired to design albums for Lou Reed, David Byrne, and the Rolling Stones. He also created powerful pro bono work like his posters for AIGA.
Throughout his career, Sagmeister has courted controversy with his use of sly, shocking images. For an award show in Hong Kong, he rankled conservative ad agencies with a traditional Cantonese image adapted to include four naked butts. For an AIGA poster, he carved the text for the ad into his own torso. When he partnered with Jessica Walsh, they announced their new company (Sagmeister & Walsh) with another pair of nude self-portraits. His response to controversy might be summed up by one of his beautiful visualized maxims: “Trying to look good limits my life.”
In 2000, Sagmeister took a year off to work on experimental projects and a book, Sagmeister: Made You Look: Another Self-Indulgent Design Monograph (practically everything we have ever designed including the bad stuff.) The bad stuff included some CD-ROMs for which he chided himself, “Don’t take any more bad jobs.”
Stefan Sagmeister’s first museum show, The Happy Show, can be seen now at the MOCA Design Center in Los Angeles. The show uses installations, infographics, sculpture, print, and film to communicate Sagmeister’s discoveries from his own compelling pursuit of happiness. He also shared his wisdom in a series of TED talks title “Happiness by Design,” “The Power of Time Off,” and “7 Rules for Making More Happiness.” They are viewable online at ted.com.
Stefan Sagmeister’s images are a little too racy for my conservative school, but I’m excited to share his work with YOU as our first master of the month of the summer. My wife introduced me to his videos after she heard him speak at Alt Summit. It turns out that she, he, me, and Illustration Friday founder, Penelope, are all included in the same book, An Illustrated Life. I like his work, but I didn’t LOVE it until I saw his Happy Show here in L.A. If the installations didn’t include so many sexy diagrams, I would certainly send all my students there. In lieu of that, I recommend it to you. The show promises NOT to make you happy, but that’s a calculated introduction “because low expectations are a good strategy.” If you have the opportunity, do enjoy.
Portrait of Stefan Sagmeister drawn by yours truly, Rama Hughes.
Charles Schulz was an American cartoonist, best known for his comic strip, Peanuts.
Charles Monroe Schulz was born in 1922 in St. Paul, Minnesota. His uncle nicknamed him “Sparky” after a character in a comic strip. “Someday, Charles,” His kindergarten teacher told him, “You’re going to be an artist.” His first published work was a drawing of his dog, Spike, that he sent to Ripley’s Believe It or Not. Spike ate pins and tacks and was the inspiration for Schluz’s iconic cartoon dog, Snoopy. Sparky was shy as a teenager, and his feelings were hurt when his drawings were rejected from the school yearbook. 60 years later, a statue of Snoopy was erected at the school.
Sparky studied art through a correspondence course from Art Instruction, Inc. After serving in World War II, he took a job at the school reviewing and grading student lessons. While working at the school, Schulz fell in love with a coworker. Donna Mae Brown turned down Charles Schulz when he proposed to her. In comics, she became the Little Red-Haired Girl, the unrequited love of Peanuts’ protagonist, Charlie Brown.
Schulz created several cartoons before he created Peanuts. The Saturday Evening Post published seventeen of his one-panel gag cartoons. His first weekly cartoon was a series of gags called Li’l Folks. Charlie Brown appeared there for the first time. The character was based on Charles Schulz but named after another teacher at Art Instruction, Inc. Schulz attempted to syndicate Li’l Folks, but his best offer fell through. Soon after, he started making four-panel comic strips. Peanuts appeared in seven newspapers later that year. Schulz earned $90 a week from its publication.
Schulz created other illustrations and comic strips, but he abandoned those projects as the popularity of Peanuts grew and grew. The strip was eventually published in 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries. Schulz drew almost 18,000 comic strips. With merchandise and product endorsements, the artist earned $30 million to $40 million dollars a year. The comic strip was developed into Emmy-winning cartoon specials and a Tony-winning musical, “You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown.” Original artwork from the strip was shown in museums around the world including the Louvre in France where Sparky received a gala reception and the Order des Arts et des Lettres from the French Ministry of Culture. Snoopy, as the official mascot of Nasa, even went to the moon! The command module and the lunar excursion module on the Apollo 10 mission were named Charlie Brown and Snoopy. In all this time, Schulz took only one vacation, a five week break to celebrate his 75th birthday.
By the 1980′s, Charles “Sparky” Schulz was one of the highest paid entertainers in America “right up there with Oprah and Michael Jackson. “By these standards, he was the most successful visual artist of all time. He lived off the earnings of his comic strip, and used much of the rest of his income for philanthropy. He and his wife, Jean, funded libraries, museums, airports, and other worthy causes. When a local ice rink was closed near their home, Schulz purchased the rink and turned it into a world-class ice arena for local families. He often ate there, drove the zamboni, and even played hockey in the seniors’ hockey league.
Despite enormous success and a happy family, Schulz was often lonely, depressed and plagued by panic attacks. By sharing his personal anxieties through a popular comic strip though, he provided humor and comfort to the rest of the world. Schulz himself compared his panic to that of a dog ”running frantically down the road pursuing the family car.” The dog ”is not really being left behind,” he said, ”but for that moment in his limited understanding, he is being left alone forever.” The simplicity of Peanuts made these depths accessible. And Schulz’s comic strips have since been studied by scholars, poets, philosophers, and, of course, other artists. In Arthur Asa Berger’s assessment, Snoopy is ”an existential hero in every sense of the term,” a dog who ”strives, with dogged persistence and unyielding courage, to overcome what seems to be his fate — that he is a dog.”
Near the end of his life, Schulz suffered from Parkinson’s disease. His tremors were so bad at times that he had to steady himself against his desk to continue drawing his comics. Over the next ten years, his health deteriorated until he could no longer read or see clearly. He announced his retirement reluctantly, and died on February 12, 2000, the day before his final comic strip was published. Two days before his death, Charles “Sparky” Schulz was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor that the United States Government can bestow. A few months later, he was honored by more than 100 cartoonists who incorporated his characters into their cartoons. In August 2002, The Charles M. Schulz Museum and Research Center opened in Santa Rosa, California, two blocks from the artist’s former studio.
When I was a kid, Peanuts was too slow and talky for me. As I have grown up though, I have come to appreciate the work of Charles Schulz. It doesn’t make me laugh as much as it moves me and even comforts me sometimes. The first strip that caught my attention was one of Charlie Brown’s “Sometimes I lie awake at night” setups. I don’t remember the punchline, but there have been a few of them. (Schulz actually said “A cartoonist is someone who has to draw the same thing day after day without repeating himself.”) When I read that comic and suddenly knew that other people were up late with their thoughts and fear, I felt some relief. I felt not so alone. To this day, I think of Charlie Brown when some sticky thought has me up at three in the morning.
Last month, one of my students asked “Why are all the famous artists crazy or drunks or whatever?” It inspired a weeks-long conversation. Schulz is my closing argument. His life’s work demonstrates that artists can be authentic, successful, and kind.
Portrait of Charles Schulz drawn by yours truly, Rama Hughes
Jackson Pollock was an abstract expressionist who revolutionized the art world with his unique way of painting. Nicknamed “Jack the Dripper,” Pollock drizzled, flung, and splattered paint on canvas. Instead of objects or people; his process, brush strokes, and colors were the “subject” of his paintings. Some of his masterpieces include Blue Poles, Autumn Rhythm, and The Deep.
Paul Jackson Pollock was born in Wyoming in 1912. His father was a farmer, and his mother loved art. Jackson was the youngest of five children, and had to compete for his parents’ attention. When his dad left the family, Jackson’s brother Charles became like a father to him. Charles was an artist, and he influenced his little brother’s interest. When their family moved to Los Angeles, Jackson enrolled in the Manuel Arts High School.
When he was 18, Jackson moved to New York City to live with his brother and to study art from Thomas Hart Benton, a celebrated painter of regional scenes and history. Jackson babysat for the Bentons and eventually became like one of the family. When his own father died suddenly though, Jackson was so upset that he got in a fight with his brother and was kicked out of their house. He struggled with alcoholism for the rest of his life.
Jackson made a living during the Great Depression creating art for President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Public Works of Art Project. His artwork at the time was influenced by the symbolism of Native American art and the experiments of Pablo Picasso.
Lee Krasner, a fellow painter and Pollock’s future wife, took an interest in Jackson’s work and introduced him to her friends in the art world. One of their friends told the collector, Peggy Guggenheim, that Jackson’s paintings were “Possibly the most original American art he had seen.” Guggenheim loaned Pollock money to buy a house, and gave him an allowance to live on. Lee dedicated herself to promoting her husband’s work. Jackson Pollock was revitalized by his home in the country and the love of his supportive wife. The following years were his most inspired and prolific.
Life magazine published an article that asked “Is Jackson Pollock the greatest living painter in the United States?” The question changed the artist’s life. His next gallery show sold out. He became the highest paid avant-garde painter in America. Other artists resented his fame though. Critics called him a fraud. Pollock began to doubt himself. The business of self-promotion made Jackson feel like a phony. He agreed to be filmed for a documentary about his work, but he was so frustrated by the process that he began to drink again.
Although Pollock’s next show included some of his best known masterpieces, none of those paintings sold at the time. He wasn’t happy painting the same way again and again. So, he changed his style and tried new things with each painting. Critics disliked his new work, and Jackson began to drink more and more. He painted one more masterpiece, “The Deep,” before his succumbed to his alcoholism.
In 1956, Jackson Pollock drove drunk and crashed his car. He killed himself and another passenger.
Despite his struggles in life, Jackson Pollock was one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. His work revolutionized how art was made, how it was taught, and what it might be. Lee Krasner managed the sale of his paintings and how they were sold to museums. Before her own death, she set up the Pollock-Krasner Foundation which gives grants to young artists.
I am not a big fan of Jackson Pollock to be honest. As always though, my appreciation grows with investigation. I was especially interested to learn that – although Pollack didn’t paint images of nature – he was inspired by the energy and movement of nature. His A&E Biography shows a nice comparison of the moving grass and water around his home and the paintings he did when he lived there. Similarly, I never saw The Deep until I began this research, but it is a haunting painting. Maybe my favorite.
As a teacher, I resent Jackson Pollock for disrupting traditional art education and, as a butterfly effect, leaving so many children without drawing skills. Nonetheless, his work can be used to teach abstraction, movement, unity, and balance, and is definitely important as an example of art as process. I also favor him as a subject for aesthetics and history lessons. Whether you like his work or not, Jackson Pollock was a pivotal figure in art history – shifting technique, subject matter, values, opinions, and even the center of the art world itself. He is, therefore, worth studying.
Shepard Fairey is a graphic designer and street artist. Street art describes any artwork created for a public space, including stickers, murals, graffiti, and sculpture. Fairey’s best known works are his “Andre the Giant Has a Posse” sticker campaign and his Barack Obama “Hope” posters.
Frank Shepard Fairey was born in Charleston, South Coralina in 1970. He began making art when he was 14. He placed his drawings on t-shirts and skateboards. He attended high school at the Idyllwild School of Music and the Arts, and he went to college at the Rhode Island School of Design.
In college, Shepard took a part time job at a skateboarding shop. While there, he used a newspaper image of Andre of the Giant, a French wrestler, to teach a friend how to make stencils. The stencil inspired Fairey to create “Andre the Giant Has a Posse” stickers to amuse his friends and classmates. He and his peers placed the stickers in cities around the world though! The images inspired people to question their surroundings and investigate the mysterious stickers. This reaction forced Fairey to consider the use of “ambiguous images” in public spaces. “I began to think,” He wrote, “There was potential to create a phenomenon.” The sticker soon evolved into the “Obey Giant.” Fairey continues to use the icon as a personal symbol and signature.
After graduation, the artist started a small printing business. Alternate Graphics made silkscreens for stickers and t-shirts. Fairey later founded BLK/MRKT Inc., a design studio that specialized in guerilla marketing. Its clients include Pepsi, Hasbro, and Netscape. Shepard also founded Studio Number One with his wife, Amanda Fairey. Through their design agency, he created album covers and movie posters. He even started an arts and culture magazine, Swindle. Some of Fairey’s fans were disappointed by these business ventures. They wanted the artist to remain “a cult figure.” These businesses provide a steady income though, and they allow Shepard Fairey to continue making his own artwork.
Fairey shows his work in galleries, he creates art for charities, and he makes posters for his preferred politic causes. In 2008, he created a series of posters supporting Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign. Fairey distributed 300,000 stickers and 500,000 posters before the election. His iconic “HOPE” portrait was called “The most effective American political illustration since ‘Uncle Sam Wants You.’” Although the Obama administration denied any connection to the “illegal work” of an “independent street artist,” Barack Obama did send a thank you letter to Shepard Fairey. “I am privileged to be a part of your artwork,” The president wrote, “And proud to have your support.”
As a street artist with strong political views, Shepard Fairey has faced legal problems. Placing artwork on other people’s property is illegal. In 2009, Fairey was arrested for graffiti, vandalism, and property damage. He was also sued for plagiarism and copyright infringement. This is ironic because Fairey has threatened to sue people who reuse his work the same way. In 2012, Fairey pled guilty to contempt of court for “destroying documents and manufacturing evidence” during his trial. Despite these controversies, Fairey’s social and political messages do seem sincere. He donates heavily to his favorite causes, and he often reinvests money he earns back into those efforts.
Shepherd Fairey has already earned a place in history. He is a leader of the street art movement that defines this era of art history. More importantly, Fairey’s “HOPE” portrait has become a part of America’s political history. It was acquired by the US National Portrait Gallery and is part of its permanent collection. Regardless of its political leanings, that poster alone is a historic illustration of an artist’s ability to affect change.
Shepard Fairey is political, controversial, successful, skilled, criminal, and timely. Can you think of a better character to launch our school year? Studio lessons spring to mind, but I’m more interested in the conversations that this artist might generate. With an election around the corner and his posters in the hall, I’d be surprised if my students and their families didn’t bring the discussions home and back to the art room again.
Portrait of Shepard Fairey by yours truly, Rama Hughes. Bayshore Billboard print by Shepard Fairey.
Egon Schiele was an important figurative painter from Austria. His paintings of people are known for their contorted, expressive poses. The most famous ones include Seated Woman with a Bent Knee and any of the many self-portraits that he created.
Schiele’s teachers recognized his talent at an early age. His uncle, who cared for Egon, sent him to Kunstgewerbeschule, the School of Arts and Crafts in Vienna, where Gustav Klimt studied art. Within a year, Egon’s teachers sent him to the more rigorous Akademie der Bildenden Kunste. He studied painting and drawing there, but was frustrated by the school’s old-fashioned approach.
Gustav Klimt took a special interest in Egon. The older artist mentored Schiele, bought his drawings, and introduced him to models and patrons. With his help, Egon had his first art shows. At the 1909 Vienna Kunstschau, he discovered and was inspired by the paintings of Edvward Munch and Vincent Van Gogh.
He left school that year to found the Neukunstgruppe, the New Art Group, with some other dissatisfied classmates. Free to pursue their own interests, Egon painted landscapes, still-lifes, and “tributes to Van Gogh’s Sunflowers.” But he was best know for his studies of the human form. His paintings of people focused on sexuality, death, and self-discovery.
Critics called Schiele’s artwork grotesque, pornographic, and disturbing. To escape the “claustrophobic Viennese milieu,” Egon moved to Krumau, a small town in southern Bohemia. The residents disapproved of Schiele’s life style though, and they ran him out of town for hiring teenage girls to model for his paintings.
Schiele moved next to Neulengbach. His studio became a gathering place for delinquent children. His neighbors were angered by his way of life. They accused him of kidnapping and he was arrested for seducing a young girl. A judge dropped those charges, but he found the artist guilty of “exhibiting erotic drawings in a place accessible to children.” In court, the judge burned one of Egon’s drawings over a candle flame. While in jail, Schiele created 12 paintings depicting the discomfort of a prison.
Soon after, Egon moved to the Viennese suburb where he met his future wife, Edith. Three days after their wedding, he was drafted into World War I. The officers respected his artistic talent. He never saw any fighting, and he was allowed to paint and draw while guarding prisoners of war.
When he returned from war, Schiele’s work “reflected the maturity of an artist in full command of his talents.” Fifty of his pieces were accepted for the Secession’s 49th exhibition in Vienna. He designed a poster for the show, and was offered his own exhibitions in Zurich, Prague, and Dresden. Thanks to their success, the price for Egon’s work increased and he received many requests for portraits.
Later that year though, the Spanish flu reached Vienna. It killed Edith Schiele when she was six months pregnant. Egon died three days later. His final works were sketches of his wife.
The Egon Schiele Museum is located in Tulln, Austria where Schiele was born. A more complete collection of his paintings can be seen in the Leopold Museum, Vienna. There is even a Schiele museum in Krumau, the small Bohemian city where Egon was run out of town. You can see his work and learn more about him at egon-schiele.net.
I saved this master of the month for summer time because I don’t think he’d pass muster with my K-8 school’s administration. In college though, Egon Schiele was a formative inspiration to me and my classmates. In my freshman sketchbooks, you can find pages and pages of pulled faces, contortionist poses, and Schiele-style self-portraits. Even now as a college visitor, I can’t count how many art students adopt Schiele’s style for a semester or more. His work is perfectly suited to the figure studies and exploration that go hand-in-hand in art school.
Portrait of Egon Schiele drawn by yours truly, Rama Hughes.