Ethereum Overview


Perhaps you’ve heard the phrases “blockchain” and “smart contract” bandied around, but what do they mean? In this article, you will understand the language, learn real blockchain solutions, and learn best practices for building a blockchain-based application.

What exactly is Ethereum?

Ethereum is a blockchain that permits the execution of applications in a secure environment. In contrast, the Bitcoin blockchain solely permits the management of bitcoin.

Ethereum features a virtual computer called the Ethereum Virtual Machine for this purpose (EVM). The EVM enables code to be validated and performed on the blockchain, ensuring that it will run identically on all machines. This code resides inside “smart contracts” (more on these below).

Ethereum preserves the state of the EVM in addition to account balances on the blockchain. All nodes process smart contracts to validate the contracts’ integrity and outputs. You can easily exchange cryptocurrencies, including Ethereum, using an instant crypto exchange.

What is a smart contract?

An intelligent contract is an executable code on the EVM. Ether, data, or a mix of both may be accepted and stored via smart contracts. Using the contract’s logic, it may then distribute the Ethereum to other accounts or even other smart contracts.

Here is another example of a smart contract with Bob and Alice. Alice wants to hire Bob to construct her a patio, and they are storing their ether in an escrow contract (a location to keep the money until a condition is met) prior to the final transaction.

Bob’s collateral to Alice in the event that he fails to construct the patio or does a bad job.)

The computer language Solidity is used to create smart contracts. Solidity is statically typed and allows, among other things, inheritance, libraries, and sophisticated user-defined types. Solidity syntax resembles JavaScript syntax.

Ethereum Overview

Blockchain networks

So far, the main public Ethereum blockchain has been described. On the MainNet, data on the blockchain, including account balances and transactions, is publicly accessible, and anybody may construct a node and begin confirming transactions. This network’s Ether has a market value and can be traded for other cryptocurrencies or fiat currencies like US Dollars (0.08 ETH to USD).

However, other networks exist as well. Anyone can really establish their own Ethereum network.

Local evaluation networks

The Ethereum blockchain may be locally emulated for development purposes. Instantaneously, local test networks perform transactions, and Ether may be dispersed as requested. There are several Ethereum emulators available.

Open test networks

Developers test Ethereum apps on public test networks (or testnets) before final deployment to the main network. Ether on these networks is used only for testing and has no value.

There are three widely used public test networks:

  • Ropsten is the official test network developed by The Ethereum Foundation. Similar to the MainNet in terms of functionality.
  • Kovan: A network that makes use of the “proof-of-authority” consensus technique. This implies that its transactions are approved by a small group of members, resulting in a predictable block time of four seconds. To minimize spam assaults, the ether supply on this testnet is likewise regulated.
  • Rinkeby: An Ethereum Foundation testnet that also uses proof-of-authority.

Private/enterprise networks

Private Ethereum networks let parties communicate data without making it visible to the general public. Private blockchains are optimal for:

  • Sharing sensitive data, such as medical information, is not permitted.
  • Due to the lower network size, scaling to provide increased read/write speeds.

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